Dating age of earth
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Age Dating the Earth
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What does a magma chamber look like? What are the largest eruptions in the world? Are earthquakes and volcanic eruptions related? Where can we find volcanoes on earth? The methods are all ultimately calibrated to relative dates of the geologic column , such that data that conflicts with a fossil's or rock's placement in the geologic column is explained away by the evolutionary theoretical system.
For example, Carbon would decay to nothing in well under 1 million years, so if Carbon is found in a dinosaur fossil it is interpreted as resulting from contamination. The result is that the geologic column is the ultimate filter for other dating methods. This not only makes the other dating methods look more consistent than they actually are, but it also renders the very existence of the geologic column untestable.
The result is that these dating methods only produce old ages for the Earth within the evolutionary theoretical system. Within the creation theoretical system, different assumptions are used, producing different results. Radiometric dating utilizes the decay rates of certain radioactive atoms to date rocks or artifacts.
Uniformitarian geologists consider this form of dating strong evidence that the Earth is billions of years old. However, research by creationists has revealed a large number of problems with radiometric dating. In some cases such as Carbon dating , radioactive dating actually gives strong evidence for a young Earth , while other methods such as K-Ar dating and Isochron dating are based on faulty assumptions and are so unreliable as to be useless. Carbon dating is a radiometric dating technique used to deduce the approximate age of organic remains by measuring the quantity of the isotope 14 C in the sample and comparing it with the current atmospheric level.
The usual isotope of carbon found in living organisms, 12 C, is stable, while 14 C is not stable. It is formed when cosmic radiation interacts with the upper atmosphere creating thermal neutrons that strike 14 N Nitrogen , converting it into 14 C which decays back into 14 N with a half-life of years. Scientists have realized that there are difficulties in dealing with the assumptions of radiometric dating. Isochron dating has been developed in an attempt to solve such problems. According to theory, the sample starts out with daughter isotopes present at constant ratios in relation to one another, but with the parent isotope, the ratio is arbitrary.
As a result it forms a straight horizontal line on a graph. As the parent decays to daughter, the ratios change and the straight line remains but becomes angled.
The slope of the line equals the number of half-lives the parent isotope has passed since solidification. It is further theorized that since all isotopes of the same element are chemically identical, they should be removed in proportional amounts, forming a straight line on the concordia diagram, that crosses the concordia curve at both the crystallization and the contamination date. Loss of uranium moves the point up and to the right, while a loss of lead moves the point down and to the left. Fission-track dating involves counting the damage tracks left by fragments of the spontaneous fission of uranium The spontaneous fission of U has a known rate, and as such the number of tracks is theoretically related to the age of the sample.
Because fission-track dating requires a manual count of the fission tracks, the process is more prone to human error and bias than other radiometric dating methods.
Professor Timothy H. Heaton
This problem is made worse because other types of crystal defects can easily be counted as fission tracks. Dendrochronology is a technique of dating past climatic changes through a study of tree ring growth. Each year a tree adds a layer of wood to its trunk and branches thus creating the annual rings we see when viewing a cross section. Wide rings are produced during wet years and narrow rings during dry seasons.
This technique has posed a different problem for creationists, as this dating method does not make use directly of accelerated decay. By using dendrochronology scientists have dated certain living trees to having ages of around years. This finding showed the current model for carbon dating to be incorrect, so scientists recalibrated their 14 C model based on this tree.
The resulting atom, or daughter product, is 14 N which has the same atomic number, but contains one more proton than the parent product. A half-life works the same way in any type of decay. In the case of 14 C, every 5, years half of the original 14 C decays into nitrogen.
Eventually, there is too little 14 C left in a sample to accurately measure without contamination. Theoretically, radiocarbon techniques have the ability to date samples to around 75, years, but the working threshold of reliable dating is around 50, years. Samples significantly older than this have very little or even no measurable 14 C left. In order to function properly, natural clocks need an irreversible process that occurs at a constant and known rate. Nuclear decay has a constant rate of decay, but as it turns out, the formation of 14 C in the atmosphere is not always constant.
However, cross-checking techniques such as tree ring dating and coral analysis, 14 C has been reliably calibrated to tens of thousands of years. The newest limit using cross-checking methods is around 26, years Dotinga Carbon isotopes are generally measured through the use of a machine called the accelerated mass spectrometer. A small portion of the sample is put into the machine which then vaporizes it. Taking advantage of the distinct mass of individual isotopes, the machine distinguishes the 14 C from all of the other atoms and molecules present and is able to count the individual atoms.
How Science Figured Out the Age of Earth - Scientific American
Charcoal, cloth, bone, or any other material that contains organic carbon can be dated using an accelerated mass spectrometer. In conjunction with other creationist organizations, the Institute for Creation Research has assembled a team of researchers to challenge existing notions about the age of the Earth.
The RATE team Radioisotopes and the Age of the Earth have studied a variety of subjects pertaining to the age of the Earth including radiocarbon dating. In the traditional model of science, radiocarbon has little to do with the age of the Earth, since its lifespan is so short. However, RATE is attempting to fit all radiometric dating into a young earth model. The RATE research in the area of radiocarbon has focused on the "blank" sample date.
According to the science behind radiocarbon dating, very old samples should have no measurable 14 C left. However, conventional scientific research projects, as well as RATE research on coal beds and diamonds, have found samples which should no longer have any 14 C but actually contain very small amounts of it. Since the accelerated mass spectrometer can detect 14 C to a higher precision than what was found in the samples, the 14 C is thought to exist because of some sort of unexplained phenomenon or contamination.
Therefore, the RATE team has identified a valid anomaly in radiocarbon research which deserves further research. Before proposing their alternate theory about the residual 14 C found in very old samples, the Rate team first discusses the possibility of contamination. Besides the cosmic rays creating 14 C in the atmosphere, other ways to create 14 C have been identified.